While volunteering at a local orthopedic center, you happen to overhear a doctor teaching his students about injuries. In an anecdote, the doctor describes scenario of an observation of a Patient Yâ€s knee. Patient Y suffered a knee accident a few years ago, and had to be transported at that time on a stretcher due to great pain. He is now very cautious and wants to take all precautions so as to avoid future arthritis, surgeries and possible total knee replacement. Patient Y is presently not on any medication, and healthy in all other ways. When the injury occurred a few years ago, an MRI indicated a partially torn ACL, which through physical therapy, and other self-healing procedures got better. Presently, because he is experiencing symptom of an unstable knee, he cannot run; also, he often feels some discomfort when he swims a lot.
1. Describe the two major types of ligaments, collateral and cruciate, in the knee, and explain the
function(s) of each.
2. In a few sentences, explain why you think Patient Y experiences the pain he experiences when
he swims a lot.
3. Why is muscle tone the most important stabilizing factor for most joints?
Two days after returning from a weekend hunting trip, Maggie notices three sting-like piercings on her lower left leg. Because she has been on such hunting adventures for many years of her life, and is used to bites from different insects, arachnids etc, she ignores the marks. After being back for almost two weeks, she experiences mild joint pain and difficulty remembering things, but hesitates to go to a hospital. On the 27th day after her return, she wakes up at night with a severe headache and neck stiffness; while she is almost about to turn off the bathroom light and return to bed, she notices a bullâ€s-eye looking rash, on the superior portion of the back of her shoulder, as she walks past the mirrors.
4. What might be her diagnosis?
5. What treatment is required to relieve her symptoms?
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