a. Writers will submit persuasive essays, written from a joint perspective, in the Chicago style. Submit a brief summary of the publication’s author’s manuscript submission guidelines along with the JCA-CCA essay.b. JCA essays must identify a relevant joint issue, argue a position, and make a recommendation – do not simply summarize approved doctrine.
c. CCA essays must analyze events and produce conclusions useful to the education of officers for joint duty – do not give simply a historical review.
d. Length: Length will conform to not less than 2,500 words and not more than 5,000 words – about 10-12 pages double-spaced.
e. A cover sheet is required.
f. Use one-inch margins, page numbers centered in footer, and Times New Roman size 12 font.
United States policy in Central America is not enough to cease unaccompanied minors mass migration to the US
Colonel Samuel Agosto-Santiago
Puerto Rico Army National Guard
Joint Forces Staff College
Advanced Joint Professional Military Education
Thesis statement, outline, and references
Submitted 24 April 2016
Faculty Advisor: COL Ernest Parker
The aftermath of over 40 years of civil war in Central America, and a lack of sustain development, porous borders, increase inequality, fragile democracy, while the United States foreign policy has decreased its focus in the Western Hemisphereis focused in the Middle East. In the absence of a competent authority and governance, these multidimensional security challenges become fertile grounds for illegitimate organizations such as Cartels and “Pandillas”. These multidimensional security challenges become fertile grounds for illegitimate organizations such as Cartels and “Pandilla’s ” in the absence of a competent authority and governance . Most likely associated toAll this is tied to strings linked to a society with great socio-economic challenges that continues to is degradeding its quality of life. A society that has not achieved resiliency after so many years of civil war, dictatorial regimes and some chose to become members of the organized crimes that is very lucrative. The international community agreed at Despite to tthe United Nations to achieve the millennium goals that includesin reducing extreme poverty, while providing human being basic needs and security. At the wake of night, thousands of unaccompanied minors crossed the borders into the United States. Stretching federal and states assets and resources that had already suffered sequestration with an increasing unfunded requirement. The mass child migrants become a first stage media engagement placing the United States under a constant international community scrutiny. Human rights organizations commence engaging in US Policy and response to the incident drawing the attention of the nation’s priority in reducing its debt. Therefore, the United States is bind into a moral and legal debate as it responds to the incident as current policy is shifted to address the issue set front. The options available is for the United States to provide monetary support to the northern triangle countries (Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala) in Central America as an effort to mitigate child mass migration.
The United States current immigration policy for those coming from Central America increased its requirements to address recent mass child migration. In the efforts to protect the homeland from harm, human trafficking, disease, illegal drugs or illicit trades . With a waning economy challenged by federal funding reduction, the nation is tested in prioritizing its efforts and scarce resources in seeking ways to minimize and protect the homeland. A joint, interagency and whole- of- government approach is a few option available fora must to deal s successssfully with the current situation that continues to developed by the mass child migrants into the United States. The alternatives are for interagency and multinational boldpath will take robust, clear and focus interactions among the agencies including justice department to achievebe effectiveness. Some actions may take An alternative is to reform the 2008 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act by deporting illegal child migrants without going before a migration judge. The rationale of this approach is to decrease the time spent in the United States causing a burdened to US Border and Immigration Agency in providing resources to an unforeseen cost. The rules on asylum seekers for Central America countries are conditioned to provide the venues for those who are originated from countries at war, prosecuted or discriminated against their religion, nationality or members of a particular social group or political views. The 52K child migrants in its majority in the ages of 6-12 are susceptible to forced recruitment by the “Pandillaas” and “Maratruchas” located and operating in the northern triangle countries (Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador). Many research and investigations were conducted in seeking the reason for the mass exodus of minors, it was found that the presence and recruitment activities from “Pandilla’s” werea the root cause. The “Pandilla’s” operate in a permissive environment where the lack of governance provides the conditions for illegal activities.
The “Pandilla’s” threatens the children and families in the neighborhood if they refuse to join the “Pandillas.” These kids are used by the “Pandilla’s” to act as messengers, and to assist in illicit activities. The parents of these potential child migrants into the United States have limited options available to offer protection and a quality of life for their young ones. Hence, resulting with thethe only choicealternative is to contract a “Coyote” that willo facilitate the clandestinethe movement into the United States for a significant amount of money that may take most of their savings or years to save. The “coyotes” have been around for a long time athe longest and most of the routes and methodology to facilitate clearing borders are through bribes. This has become a profitable organization that has a variety of customers that includes human trafficking, drug smuggling, human smuggling , and other offers that may generate a profit.
After forty years of civil war resulting in a disrepair economy with many social challenges among society that includes health, education, security and a fragile democracy. A country that is struggling in providing the basic needs of its citizens . Conditions that takes a viable economy with the political wof will to set policies and treaties that would create the conditions for sustain development.
Commercial agreements of good and services that since 2014, $11.8 Trillion has dropped in 2015 to $1.4 Trillion . What has caused this significant decreased is an unusual symptom to discover the cause. Some questions may be: Is it associated with US immigration policies? Is it China and Europe competing forin Western Hemisphere the market and influence?. The fact is that Central America continues to struggle with high inequality and extreme poverty despite its significant improvement since the termination of the civil wars. The country iswas very vulnerable becoming and fertile and attractive for illicit activities that providesing the conditions venue for drug cultivation and smuggling as a bypass route from South America to the nnorth. Organized crimes activities Cchallenges a weak and fragile state with very limited resources to interdict and to provide the adequate security conditions for the local populace . Citizens that can To oobtain legitimate employment unfortunatley areinstead low level and salary jobs, that could barely providinge enough for the family . Therefore, promoting for organized crimes in providing the jobs in illicit activities and obtaining its loyalty replacing the legitmitate governance authority.. The current security challenges diminishes any opportunity the opportunity for foreign investors that would create betterto invest that will create better jobs and opportunities for the local populace resulting in greater secucrity conditions.. The same effect is observed when parents decide to send minor migrants to the United States with the hope of a better life.
The United States Government has taken an approach in responding to the cause of child mass migrant by providing additional resources to the northern triangle countries. This effort is made by providing funding for equipment and training to the local police force and military personnel through the CCMD OCOM SOUTHCOM and the US Embassy. The effort includes in strengthening the judicial system and countries institutions by demonstrating transparency and respect for human rights. Several initiatives are shared with the northern triangle in the effort of combatting transnational organized crime (CTOC). This approach is made with a whole of government approach, as the USG serves as an advisor in overseeing the efforts. The US Border and Immigration agencies have continued the exchange of information to strengthen ed the porous borders between Mexico and the United States.
The efforts extend to the Borders of Guatemala to cease the migrations into Mexico and followed into the United States. Countless efforts are made in pursuing agreements to strengthened the borders from mass movements by disrupting articulating coyote’s network. The coyote’s network is an informal economy the has ve lasted for decades during and after the civil war. They were once looked upon as a hope for a better and secure life during the civil war. Nowadays they have been involved in human trafficking as well. The local populace has a tough decision to make when sending a relative or child with a coyote for the high cost versus the risk taken that often their lives savings. This approach is called pushed when the parents send their child to migrate to the United States. When the parents live in the United States, it is pull.
The United States interest in the Western Hemisphere is important despite the perception that because the focus and attention have been directed to the Middle East and now after recent National Security Strategy to the Pacifics. As the President of the United States stated in the National Security Strategy, recognizing the US power to exert in the world resources are not infinite. Therefore, it takes a whole of government approach to addressing the challenges in the world of violent extremism by fostering alliances and assisting partner countries to build capacity.
“Indeed, in the long-term, our efforts to work with other countries to counter the ideology and root causes of violent extremism will be more important than our capacity to remove terrorists from the battlefield.” (NSS Comment)
The United States efforts in assisting to build capacity in Central America is a preferred approach to strengthened security in the Western Hemisphere. This method is executed in a various forms with the military to military engagements, law enforcement to law enforcement and diplomatic approach in showing good governance with greater transparency. Since 2008, the US State Department has engaged in the region through Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI). This initiative is nested with the CCMD OCOM initiative in the efforts in building capacity in the area which is the main path for drug trafficking, human trafficking, and others. The efforts are combined to strengthen the judicial system, law enforcement, and the military while preserving democracy and civilian control authority.
The National Guard efforts through the State Partnership Program (SPP) engagements in the Western Hemisphere by exchanging subject matter experts experiences with objectives nested in the nations and CCMD OCOM interest. Additional resources may be available from the reduction of Troops in Also and recent years after decreasing the presence of the military from 180 thousand troops to approximately 15 thousand between Irak and Afghanistan that can be diverted to this effort in the Western Hemisphere. The opportunity to maintain an operational force well equipped and trained is necessary for sustaining readiness and certainly these engagements will add value to the force. The National Guard became a force provider for Regionally Aligned Force (RAF) initiative in the Western Hemisphere and some instance other CCMD’OCOM ’s. The CCMD OCOM nesting the RAF, SPP and CARSI at the inter-agency approach to meet the national interest with the means, ways, and ends. These efforts set the path in increasing security cooperation in the region.
Security cooperation with the approach in strengthening regional security is a venue to set the ways for prosperity and further investments. This will lead to reducing extreme poverty, good governance with the capacity to exert in isolated areas that have been replaced by transnational organized crimes activities undermining a legitimate governance, rules, law, and order. This fear is the symptom that results in the local populace forcing with little options in sending a child to migrate to the United States with the faith of a better life. It is an act of desperation of human suffering while it lacks a safe and secure environment.
After forty years of civil war, the forces built d up by the States to counter the opponent is a valuable resource with combat experience. Despite the fear of a military coup d’etat , provisions have been made to mitigate and submit to civil authority with the assistance and advice of the United States. Therefore, it would be wise for the States to use military assets to address internal affairs in combatting transnational organized crimes (CTOC) organizations. These organizations possess a real threat to the State’s sovereignty and ways to exert democracy and governance.
The biggest challenge is how to measure the effectiveness of the efforts and strategy used to achieve a safe and secure environment remains unknown. Some would measure its effectiveness by observing the statistics of extreme violence lowering from its original numbers. For example Honduras, which is the most violent country in the Hemisphere with a crime rate of 90 per 100,000 in thousand habitants. The problem persists as the country continues struggling with its economy and lack of government ance presence in most of the isolated areas that are prominent for “Pandillas” that has the local populace captivated in fear. The “Pandillas” have grown in numbers throughout the years. Theyrefore have created a parallel system that would provide security and some basic needs to the populace in return for loyalty.
The need for an effective Campaign Plan against the “Pandillas” becomes more necessary than ever. The approach to engaging with a multinational and interagency approach is essential in the effort to achieve a safe and secure environment. The protection and human security continue s to be a great concern to the local populace and rhetoric speech for politics that wants to win an office in the general elections. A whole-of-government approach that includes a socioeconomic response that would create the conditions for sustain development and foreign investment can directly relate to prosperity and a stronger democracy.
In conclusion as the “Pandillas” presents itself a threat to Central America. The State is left with little options to take a whole-of-government approach due to the limited resources. Also, the security challenges become a regional concern that its cause is spill into the United States by mass child migrants creating further problems to the homeland. As a recommendation, the integration of inter-agencies and other regional organizations such as CICA, CENTAM, OEA, US INL, CCMD OCOM must form an alliance in the efforts to defeat the “Pandillas” conducting their operation with impunity. The lack of government presencernance in isolated areas, the fact that this is a regional security challenge it must be address at the multi-national and interagency engagement. Creating a multinational task force in Central America by integrating the Organization of American States with the political will of each country toward a common goal . Establish a matrix of measurement of success with feedback from the local populace to assess the effectiveness. Set criteria and specific goals at short, a medium and long term that will be addressed at the various forum such as CENTAM, CICA, USCAP, and other State of State regional meetings. These goals should be similar to the millenium goals at the United Nations.
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