Chapter 12 is base in Research ethic. Principles of ethical conduct in research. Research ethics are norms for the conduct of a research. Individuals should be treated as autonomous agents. the term autonomous refers to the ability to make decisions, and the principles refers to honoring those decisions, unless they are detrimental to others. Lack of respect for persons is shown when a person is denied freedom to act on his or her decisions or when information needed to make a decision is withheld without a compelling reason to do so (NIH, 2009 ).You can see that achieving the optimum balance between offering prisoner’s opportunities to participate in research studies and not placing any pressure on them, even too generous an incentive can be considered too much pressure.
In chapter 13 focuses in participant recruitment. Complex studies involving hard to reach populations require an especially detailed plan for recruitment. The plan should include the inclusion and exclusion criteria and address the means by which you will access the population. Potential barriers to participation, how you will establish trust. Lastly how and what will persuade people to participate. There are sources that can provide access to possible participants. They often serve as gatekeepers, protecting the privacy of potential participants but also allowing and facilitating access under appropriate circumstances.
Chapter 12 is focused on the principles of research ethics. Research ethics are based on three fundamental principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.
Respect for persons. This principle incorporates two elements that deal with respecting people in regard to research: People should be treated as autonomous. The term autonomous means that a person can make his or her own decisions about what to do and what to agree to. Researchers must respect that individuals should make their own informed decisions about whether to participate in research. Beneficence, the definition of beneficence is an action that is done for the benefit of others. This principle states that research should: Do no harm. The purpose of health research is to discover new information that would be helpful to society. The purpose of research should never be to hurt anyone or find out information at the expense of other people. The purpose of much research involving humans is to show whether a drug is safe and effective. This means participants may be exposed to some harms or risks. Researchers are obligated to do their best to minimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants. Justice, this principle deals with the concept of fairness. Researchers designing trials should consider what is fair in terms of recruitment of participants and choice of location to conduct a trial. This encompasses issues related to who benefits from research and who bears the risks of research. It provides the framework for thinking about these decisions in ways that are fair and equitable.
Chapter 13 focuses on the subject of participant recruitment. Recruitment involves attracting and selecting suitable candidates for a project. It can be conducted through newspapers, email, posters, brochures, by internet, radio or television announcements, or by soliciting volunteers in public spaces. When a project requires IRB review, all recruitment materials must be reviewed as part of the study before they can be used.
Chapters 12 and 13 of the textbook explore the world of ethics in research. Ethical considerations in research are critical. Ethics are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong (Tappen, 2016). They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Chapter 12 notes that ethical standards prevent against the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research. Ethical conduct is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among researchers. This is especially important when considering issues related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, and many other issues.
Researchers must also adhere to ethical standards in order for the public to support and believe in the research. The public wants to be assured that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety, health standards and so on. The handling of these ethical issues greatly impact the integrity of the research project and can affect whether or not the project receives funding.