In the late 1990s, Vanguard Airlines operated as a low-cost carrier, offering low prices and limited services, out of Kansas City, Missouri. Not long after its inception, 300 Vanguard began offering a significant number of flights based out of Midway International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, as well. When Vanguard expanded to Midway, incumbent airlines, such as Delta, quickly responded to its low fares by offering many competing flights at comparably low prices. The intense price competition ultimately caused Vanguard to exit Midway in 2000 and file for bankruptcy in 2002. At varying points in time, the airline industry has been described as a contestable market; does the example of Vanguard support or refute this characterization of the airline industry? Explain
January 4, 2018
In a statement to Gillette’s shareholders, its CEO indicated, “Despite several new product launches, Gillette’s advertising-to-sales declined dramatically . . . to 7.5 percent last year.
January 4, 2018

Suppose the cost function of a representative steel producer is C(Q) = 1,200 + 15Q2. Compare the change in the quantity of raw steel exchanged at the market level with the change in raw steel produced by a representative firm. How do you explain this difference?

Recently, the spot market price of U.S. hot rolled steel plummeted to $400 per ton. Just one year ago, this same ton of steel cost $700. According to Metals Monitor, the drop in price was due to falling oil prices, along with a rise in cheap imports and excess capacity. These dramatic market changes have greatly impacted the supply of raw steel. Suppose that last year the supply for raw steel was QS raw = 600 + 4P, but this year it has shifted to QS raw = 4,200 + 4P. Assuming the market for raw steel is competitive and that the current worldwide demand for steel is Qd raw = 9,000 – 8P, compute the equilibrium price and quantity for the steel market one year ago, and the equilibrium price-quantity combination for the current steel market. Suppose the cost function of a representative steel producer is C(Q) = 1,200 + 15Q2. Compare the change in the quantity of raw steel exchanged at the market level with the change in raw steel produced by a representative firm. How do you explain this difference?

 

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